CP/M Operating System

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Gary A. Kildall developed for the company Intel the PL/M programming language for the Intel 8008, derived of PL/I in 1973. In the same year he developed the operating system CP/M (Control Program for Microprocessors) in PL/M. It was the first operating system for Intel based computers. The strengths of CP/M are the high portability on all sorts of hardware configurations. Base functions were programmed hardware-independently, depending on the aimed platform the special feature were only programmed additionally. Kildall set up with his wife Dorothy McEwen the company DR Inc. (Digital Research Incorporation) in 1976. At first CP/M was designed by DR only as a pure file manager program for 8-bit x86 computer and sold by Intel. In 1976 there was a CP/M Bios for Intel 8080 computers. At this time CP/M was the dominating operating system on the market and used by the most computer manufacturers on theyre computers to. In 1981 dozens of computer machine types competed under various operating systems like CP/M in numerous variations. Additional there were proprietary operating systems and UNIX variations. This year the operating system was used approximately on 200,000 microcomputers in more than 3,000 different configurations. CP/M was used in 1985 worldwide approximately 4 million times in different versions. CP/M was renamed to DR-DOS after few other releases in 1988.

CP/M was available in many different versions for numerous application purposes. Technical further advancements of processors and the trend towards multi-user systems also were included in the development. MP/M II brought additional commands, multi-user ability with programs like CONSOLE, DISKRESET, SPOOL, SHED and ATTACH. CP/M plus (CP/M 3.0) could address 1 mbyte of main memorie by segmentation the memory areas, harddisk storage up to 16 mbyte was also possible. CP/M 86 managed max. 1 mbyte main memorie without segmentation and stood into competition with MS DOS. CP/M 68 K was designed for 68 K RISC CPUs and not able for multi-user or multitasking.


Date - Version
1973 - CP/M 1.0
--- - CP/M 1.4
1979 - CP/M 2.0
--- - CP/M 2.2, served as the base for MS/DOS
1982 - CP/M 3.0, 8-bit operating system
1982 - CP/M 3.1, 16-bit operating system, DR-DOS Basis
1985 - DOS-Plus 1.0 was introduced
198? - DOS-Plus 1.2
1986 - DOS-Plus 2.01
1988, May - DR DOS 3.31 was introduced, first MS-DOS compatible version
1988 - DR DOS 3.32
1988 - DR DOS 3.40
1989, Jan. - DR DOS 3.41 OEM Release
1990, May - DR DOS 5.0 (leopard) ready, with Viewmax
1991 - DR DOS 5.11
1991, Sept. - DR DOS 6.0 ready, Superstor, Delwatch, NetWare Lite support, DOS prompt task switcher (Taskmax)
1993, Dec. - DR DOS 7.00 (Novell DOS), network support, memory management
1997, Feb. - DR DOS 7.01 (OpenDOS)
1998, Sept. - DR DOS 7.02 (OpenDOS)
1999, March - DR DOS 7.03 (OpenDOS)
2004, March - DR DOS 8.0, FAT 32 and large harddisks are supported, can be installed to a ROM or FLASH-disk (embedded systems), various DOS programs, multitasking (with 386 CPU or better), DPMS memory manager for 286/386/486/Pentium, data storage compression, EMM386 memory manager


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